Research Notes from This Week

Home Forums The Skin Support Program Part 6 – Skin Surface pH Resources Research Notes from This Week

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    Michael Anders
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    These are just some of thoughts from this weeks research. Decided to include them for your reading.

    • Importance of Sweat
      From recent research for this program, it has become more apparent that the absence (or reduced levels) of sweat may be an integral part of seborrheic dermatitis progression. Perhaps sweat gland malfunction requires more investigation.
    • Utilizing Acidic Solutions
      Using acidic (pH 3-4) solutions can help improve barrier function by stabilizing a overly alkaline skin environment ["The alkaline pH-adapted skin barrier is disrupted severely by SLS-induced irritation." E Kim, S Kim, G W Nam, H Lee, S Moon, I Chang (July 7, 2009)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">1]. However, extremely acidic solutions may cause significant irritation to damaged skin and prevent adequate barrier repair.
    • Rethinking the Spike in Seborrheic Dermatitis Occurrence at Puberty
      Perhaps the spike in seborrheic dermatitis seen in the beginning stages of adulthood may be partially caused by changes in hygiene practices (specifically increased washing and cleansing) which are driven by unfamiliar increases in sebum production.
    • Skin Surface pH in Infants
      High skin pH is also seen infants ["Skin barrier properties in different body areas in neonates." G Yosipovitch, A Maayan-Metzger, P Merlob, L Sirota (August 7, 2000)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">2, "Neonatal skin care: the scientific basis for practice." C Lund, J Kuller, A Lane, J W Lott, D A Raines (May 19, 2000)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">3]. And infants are another group of individuals at higher risk of developed seborrheic dermatitis (specifically referred to as infantile seborrheic dermatitis), which resolves with age.
    • Specifics of the Nasolabial Folds (Nose Creases)
      Some reports have shown that sensitive skin areas such as the nasolabial folds are more resistance to external approaches to pH reduction ["pH measurements during lactic acid stinging test in normal and sensitive skin." N Issachar, Y Gall, M T Borell, M C Poelman (July 14, 1997)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">4].
    • Main Factors Behind Atopic Dermatitis ["Skin pH: from basic science to basic skin care." Saba M Ali, Gil Yosipovitch (October 17, 2013)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">5]:
      • Reduced sweat secretions
      • Faulty secretion of lamellar bodies
      • Reduced free amino acids and urocanic acid
      • Filaggrin deficiencies
      • Disturbed synthesis, excretion and maturation of stratum corneum lipids
    • The Important Role of Amino Acids in Regulating Skin Surface pH
      The stratum corneum and the skin surface are mainly acidified by free fatty acids, amino acids, enzymatic mechanism,s and secretion of lamellar bodies [6], with amino acids being one of the most important.
    • Importance of pH in Skin Microbiota and Skin Disease
      Skin surface pH is likely the most important factor in the skin microbiota and the occurrence of common skin disease ["Measurement of skin pH and its significance in cutaneous diseases." K Chikakane, H Takahashi (August 6, 1996)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">7, "Effect of prolonged occlusion on the microbial flora, pH, carbon dioxide and transepidermal water loss on human skin." R Aly, C Shirley, B Cunico, H I Maibach (February 23, 1979)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">8, "Association of skin wetness and pH with diaper dermatitis." R W Berg, M C Milligan, F C Sarbaugh (June 2, 1994)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">9, "Skin barrier, hydration, and pH of the skin of infants under 2 years of age." F Giusti, A Martella, L Bertoni, S Seidenari (May 18, 2001)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">10, "Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2: an intracellular keratinocyte differentiation product that is incorporated into the cornified envelope." P J Jensen, Q Wu, P Janowitz, Y Ando, N M Schechter (March 24, 1995)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">11].
    • Water in Oil Formulations Are Preferred
      Water in oil formulations are preferred due to their prolonged skin hydrating potential [12].
    • Skin Surface pH is Lower in the Summer
      Skin surface pH value is notable lower in July then in the winter ["Seasonal variations in skin temperature, skin pH, evaporative water loss and skin surface lipid values on human skin." T Abe, J Mayuzumi, N Kikuchi, S Arai (September 28, 1980)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">13].
    • Lower pH Levels Have Been Noted in Seborrheic Dermatitis
      Some physicians have specifically noted raised skin pH levels in individuals affected by seborrheic dermatitis [14], however the data on this topic is limited.
    • Malassezia Production is Severely Inhibited at Low pH
      In vitro, pH 4.5 was able to inhibit malassezia growth by roughly 95% ["New strategies in dandruff treatment: growth control of Malassezia ovalis." A Baroni, R De Rosa, A De Rosa, G Donnarumma, P Catalanotti (January 24, 2001)" rel="popover" data-placement="top" role="button" data-trigger="focus" data-html="true">15]
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